• This is our classroom's Saxon Phonics webpage. The following rules will help your child code and read the words introduced in our Saxon Phonics program. Please have your child read the words we code and write in school before he/she completes the homework side of his/her paper. Saxon Phonics is a wonderful way to learn to read, however your child must pay attention to all our lessons to absorb all the material taught during the school year. We review a lot in school to practice all the sounds and words.

     
    V means vowel                               
    C means consonant

    Coding:To code a word, first check for an ending and/or a final stable syllable. Then see if the word has one vowel, two vowels, three vowels or if it is a compound word. Last code each root word, each syllable using a vowel pattern, or each word in the compound word.

    Vowel rules   First Vowel Rule: When a vowel is followed by a consonant, the vowel is short.Code the vowel with a breve. A breve looks like a smile.   (hat, nest, bill, stop, jump)
                              Second Vowel Rule:  An accented vowel not followed by a consonant is long. Code the vowel with a macron. A macron is simply a straight line over the vowel.   (go, we, hi, table, station, baby)
                              Third Vowel Rule: A vowel followed by a consonant and a sneaky "e" is long. Code the vowel with a macron and silent the sneaky "e". Code any silent letter with a back slash. ("/")   (name, theme, like, hope, rule)
                               Fourth Vowel Rule: An open, unaccented "a" usually makes a schwa sound.  (about, banana, awake, alive)

    Voiced sounds: They are sounds that require the use of your vocal cords; a vibration is felt. The letters are coded with a line through them.  as, his ( the s /z/)   that, this ( the th is voiced)

    Schwa vowel: A coding marked over a vowel to indicate the short "u" sound.  (ago, mitten, a)

    Endings: A letter or group of letters added to a root word. You must always box endings first, and then code the root word.   mix+-ing= mixing,  cat+-s=cats,   help+-ed=helped,   look+-s=looks,               box+-es=boxes,   soap+-y=soapy,   slow+-ly=slowly,   good+-ness=goodness,   home+-less=homeless

    Spelling with c and k: Use the letter "k" before the letters e, i, or y.  (kept, kite, sky)Use the letter "c" before the letters a, o, u, or any consonant. (cape, coat, cup, club) ( code the "c" with a K-back)
    Use the letters "ck" after a short vowel. (back, neck, pick, rock, luck) (underline the "ck" digraph and code the "c" silent)
    Use the letter "k" after a consonant or vowel digraph.  (milk, bank, look, week)
    Use the letters "ke" after a long vowel.  (bake, like, duke)  (silent the "e")
    Use the letter "c" at the end of a word that has two or more syllables.  (magic, picnic, fantastic) (code the "c" with a K-back)

    Vowel Patterns: The breaking of a word into syllables to make coding and pronunciation easier.
    VCCV means a word has two vowels, so it has two syllables. You find the vowel pattern and draw the syllable line between the two consonants. Then code each syllable.  happy, kitten, invite, penny, inject
    VCV means a word has two vowels, so it has two syllables. In the first syllable, the vowel can make a long sound (raven, elect, paper), a short sound (river), or a schwa sound (ago, away, around) You must try each vowel sound before you draw the syllable line.
    VCCVCCVmeans the word has three vowels, so it has three syllables. The syllable lines go between each pair of consonants, then code each syllable.  fantastic, Atlantic, important
    VCCCV  means the word has two vowels, so it has two syllables. The syllable line cannot be drawn between a consonant blend or a consonant digraph.   inspect, athlete

    Digraph: Two letters that come together to make one sound. Digraphs are always underlined and then coded.  Consonant digraphs are: ck, th, ng, sh, ch, ph
                Vowel digraphs:  Long "a" vowel digraphs are: ay (hay, day), ai (rain, nail), ea (steak, break), ei(veil)
    Long "e" vowel digraphs are:  ee (sheep, see), ea (leaf, meat), ey (key, money), ie (shield, field), ei (receipt)
    Long "i" vowel digraph is:  ie (pie, tie)
    Long "o" vowel digraphs are: ow (snow, grow), oa (soap, road)
    Long "u" vowel digraph is: ue (glue, blue)
    Short "e" vowel digraph is: ea (thread, feather)
    Short "o" vowel digraphs are: au (faucet, August), aw (straw, lawn)

    Floss Rule: The letters "f", "l", and "s" are doubled after a short vowel in a one-syllable root word.  (puff, stiff   hill, doll   boss, miss)

    Spelling with final "v": When spelling the "v" sound in the final position, always use the letters "ve".  (have, give, brave, stove)

    Final Stable Syllable: A syllable the occurs at the end of a word frequently enough to be considered stable. The final stable syllable is coded first with a bracket (code the "e" silent ) and then code the first syllable of the word.
    [ble table,  [cle uncle,   [dle candle,  [fle ruffle,  [gle goggle,  [kle buckle,  [ple staple,  [sle hassle,
    [tle battle,  [zle puzzle,  [tion motion,  [sion  mansion, television,  [ture  picture

    Vowel "y": The letter "y" can act like a vowel at the end of a word.
    When "y" sounds like a long "i", it is at the end of a one syllable word. It is coded with a dot and a macron.  (cry, my, shy)
    When "y" sounds like a long "e", it is at the end of a two syllable word and is coded with a dot.  (baby, happy, silly)
    When "y" is an ending it will make the long "e" sound. You box the ending -y, then code the root word.   (sunny, rainy, cloudy)

    Combinations: Two letters that come together to make an unexpected vowel or consonant sound are combinations. Code combinations with an arc under the letters. "ar" (jar, card), "er" (fern, her), "ir" (bird, shirt), "or" (for, horse), "ur" (turtle, hurt), "qu" (quit, quack), "wh" (whale, white)

    Trigraph:Three letters that come together to make one vowel or consonant sound are called trigraphs. They are underlined and some letters are marked silent.  "igh" makes the long "i" sound (high, sight),  "tch" makes the "ch" sound at the end of a word and comes after a short vowel  (catch, stretch),  "dge" makes the "g" sound at the end of a word and comes after a short vowel  (edge, bridge)

    Compound Words:Two words that come together to make one word is called a compound word. You are to divide the word in half with a division line and then code each word using the phonics rules.   (backpack, doghouse, bedroom, afternoon)

    Cedilla: A coding mark (a small hook on the bottom of the letter "c" making the "c" look like an "s") on the letter "c" used to indicate its soft sound which is the sound of "s".  (circle, cent, cycle)

    Spelling with final "s": Use "ss" after a short vowel. Code the second "s" silent.  (pass, dress, miss, boss, fuss)
                                                Use "ce" after a long vowel. Code the "c" with the cedilla marking and the "e" silent.  (face, niece, nice)
                                                Use "se" after a consonant or two vowels. Code the "e" silent.  (purse, mouse, loose, horse)

    Diphthong: Two vowel sounds that come together so fast that they are considered one syllable. Diphthongs are coded with an arc under the letters. The diphthong "oi" comes at the beginning or in the middle of a word.  (oil, spoil, toil) The diphthong "oy" usually comes at the end of a word.  (enjoy, boy, toy)  The diphthong "ou" comes at the beginning or in the middle of a word.  (our, shout, found, around) The diphthong "ow" usually comes at the end of a word unless it is an irregular spelling.  (how, now, cow)  (brown, clown, frown)

    Wild Colt Words: One syllable words containing "i" or "o" followed by two consonants; the vowels are often pronounced with their long vowel sound.  (wild, child, blind, pint)  (colt, old, told, both)

    Soft "g": The letter "g" can make the sound of "j". The letter "g" is coded with a dot above it just like the letter "j". Spell words with the letter "g" before "e, i, or y".  (gem, gym, magic, germ)  Spell words with a "j" before "a, o, or u".  (jar, job, jug, juice, jam)
                      Words that end with the sound of "j" are spelled with -dge or -ge. Use the letters -dge after short vowels.  (bridge, fudge, badge)  Use -ge after anything else.  (cage, lounge, page)

    Spelling with the sound of "ch": Use -tch after short vowels.  (catch, match, ditch)  Use -ch after anything else.  (teach, couch, reach)

    Ending Rules: Dropping Rule: When a root word ends with a silent "e", drop the "e" before adding a vowel ending (-ing, -ed, -y, -er, -est). You still box the ending before you code the root word.  (take + -ing= taking,  vote + -ed= voted,  taste + -y= tasty)
                               
    Doubling Rule: When the final syllable of a root word ends with one vowel and one consonant, double the final consonant before adding a vowel ending (-ing, -ed, -y, -er, -est) 
    ( hit + -ing= hitting,  hop + -ed=hopped,  forget + =ing=forgetting)

    Short "o" sound for the letter "a":
    When the letter "a" comes after the letters "w" or "qu", it often makes the sound of short "o". Code this sound with two dots above the letter "a".  (water, quad, watch, squad)    When the letter "a" comes before the letter "l", it often makes the sound of short "o". Code the letter "a" with two dots.  (salt, walk, malt, talk)